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The design and analysis of the wings of aircraft is one of the principal applications of the science of aerodynamics , which is a branch of fluid mechanics. The properties of the airflow around any moving object can — in principle — be found by solving the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics. However, except for simple geometries these equations are notoriously difficult to solve.
For a wing to produce "lift", it must be oriented at a suitable angle of attack relative to the flow of air past the wing. When this occurs the wing deflects the airflow downwards, "turning" the air as it passes the wing. Since the wing exerts a force on the air to change its direction, the air must exert a force on the wing, equal in size but opposite in direction. This force manifests itself as differing air pressures at different points on the surface of the wing. A region of lower-than-normal air pressure is generated over the top surface of the wing, with a higher pressure on the bottom of the wing.
The lower air pressure on the top of the wing generates a smaller downward force on the top of the wing than the upward force generated by the higher air pressure on the bottom of the wing. Hence, a net upward force acts on the wing. This force is called the "lift" generated by the wing. The different velocities of the air passing by the wing, the air pressure differences, the change in direction of the airflow, and the lift on the wing are intrinsically one phenomenon. It is, therefore, possible to calculate lift from any of the other three. For example, the lift can be calculated from the pressure differences, or from different velocities of the air above and below the wing, or from the total momentum change of the deflected air.
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Fluid dynamics offers other approaches to solving these problems—and all produce the same answers if done correctly. Given a particular wing and its velocity through the air, debates over which mathematical approach is the most convenient to use can be mistaken by novices as differences of opinion about the basic principles of flight. An airfoil American English or aerofoil British English is the shape of a wing, blade of a propeller , rotor , or turbine , or sail as seen in cross-section.
Wings with an asymmetrical cross section are the norm in subsonic flight. Wings with a symmetrical cross section can also generate lift by using a positive angle of attack to deflect air downward. Symmetrical airfoils have higher stalling speeds than cambered airfoils of the same wing area  but are used in aerobatic aircraft [ citation needed ] as they provide practical performance whether the aircraft is upright or inverted.
Another example comes from sailboats, where the sail is a thin membrane with no path-length difference between one side and the other. For flight speeds near the speed of sound transonic flight , airfoils with complex asymmetrical shapes are used to minimize the drastic increase in drag associated with airflow near the speed of sound. Aircraft wings may have various devices, such as flaps or slats that the pilot uses to modify the shape and surface area of the wing to change its operating characteristics in flight.
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Besides fixed-wing aircraft , applications for wing shapes include: In nature, wings have evolved in insects, pterosaurs , dinosaurs birds , and mammals bats as a means of locomotion. Various species of penguins and other flighted or flightless water birds such as auks , cormorants , guillemots , shearwaters , eider and scoter ducks and diving petrels are avid swimmers, and use their wings to propel through water.
Winged tree seeds that cause autorotation in descent. A laughing gull , exhibiting the " gull wing " outline. In , Francis Rogallo invented a kite-like tensile wing supported by inflated or rigid struts, which ushered in new possibilities for aircraft. The industry knew that sound was coming.
Most didn't accept this truth, but they knew it alright! I've said all I need to say, and now I'll let this picture speak for itself.
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Two young men, one rich, one middle class, who are in love with the same woman, become fighter pilots in World War I. Wellman , Harry d'Abbadie d'Arrast uncredited. Our Favorite Trailers of the Week. The Worst Movies in My Opinion. Share this Rating Title: Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Learn more More Like This. The Broadway Melody Passed Drama Musical Romance. The Life of Emile Zola Passed Drama Romance War.
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All the King's Men Edit Cast Complete credited cast: Mary Preston Charles 'Buddy' Rogers David Armstrong Jobyna Ralston Sylvia Lewis El Brendel Herman Schwimpf Richard Tucker Air Commander Gary Cooper Cadet White Gunboat Smith The Sergeant Henry B. David's Father Roscoe Karns Cameron Julia Swayne Gordon David's Mother Arlette Marchal Edit Storyline Two young men from the same town but different social classes end up as fighter pilots in WW1.
Edit Did You Know? Goofs When Schwimpf is punched and falls down, he drops his coat on the ground, but is on the table in a following shot.